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Agama (Islam) tidak mungkin tegak (jaya) kecuali dengan al-Kitab (Al-Qur'an), al-Mizan (timbangan keadilan) dan al-Hadid (kekuatan besi). Kitab adalah yang memberi petunjuk, sedangkan besilah yang menolongnya. Dengan al-Kitab, tegaklah ilmu dan agama. Dengan al-Mizan hak-hak harta dapat ditunaikan. Dan dengan al-Hadid hukum pidana Islam dapat ditegakkan.(Majmu al-Fatawa : 25/365)

Wednesday, May 11, 2011


Abu Thabit from Sahl bin Hunaif (May Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (PBUH) said: "He who asks Allah for martyrdom, Allah will raise him to the high status of the martyrs, even if he dies on his bed." 


This hadith hinted at the two very high status in the sight of Allah, i.e. martyrdom (shuhada’) and truthfulness (sidq), just as mentioned by Allah:
وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنۡعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡہِم مِّنَ ٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ وَٱلصِّدِّيقِينَ وَٱلشُّہَدَآءِ وَٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ‌ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ رَفِيقً۬ا (٦٩

"All who obey Allah and the apostle are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of Allah, i.e: the Prophets (who teach), the Siddiqeen (the Champions of Truth), the Shuhada’ (who die shaheed), and the Soliheen (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship!" 

(an-Nisa’, 4:69)

There are three types of shaheed;

1-    Shaheed in the akhirah (hereafter) only; those who die after being affected by calamities, such as those who die in a fire, from drowning and of intestinal ailments.

“There are seven types of martyrdom in addition to being killed in Allah's cause: one who dies of plague is a martyr; one who is drowned is a martyr; one who dies of pleurisy is a martyr; one who dies of an internal complaint is a martyr; one who is burnt to death is a martyr; who one is killed by a building falling on him is a martyr; and a woman who dies while pregnant is a martyr.” 

(Abu Dawud an-Nasa’I and Ahmad)

The same goes with those who die defending their honor and their own possessions just as Rasulullah SAW said in a hadith:

From Abu Hurairah, he said: there was a man who came to Rasulullah SAW and asked, "O Rasulullah, what is your opinion if someone wants to seize my properties." He (SAW) said, “Don’t give your properties to him.” He asked again, "What is your opinion if he attacks me?" He (SAW) said, “Attack (fight) him.” He asked again, "What is your opinion if he kills me?" He (SAW) said, “You will be shaheed.” He asked again, "What is your opinion if I am able to kill him?" He (SAW) said, “He will be in hell.” 


From Sa’id bin Zaid, he said; Rasulullah SAW said; “Whoever dies while defending his own possessions is a martyr, whoever dies fighting in order to defend his own family is also a martyr, and whoever dies guarding his own faith is a martyr; whoever dies defending his blood (own person) is a martyr.” 

(At-Tirmidzi, an-Nasa’i, and al-Baihaqi)

2- Shaheed in the dunya (world) and akhirah; i.e. those who are killed in the arena of jihad. This is the highest form of shaheed just as Allah SWT explains:

وَلَا تَحۡسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمۡوَٲتَۢا‌ۚ بَلۡ أَحۡيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ يُرۡزَقُونَ (١٦٩

فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِٱلَّذِينَ لَمۡ يَلۡحَقُواْ بِہِم مِّنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ أَلَّا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ (١٧٠

يَسۡتَبۡشِرُونَ بِنِعۡمَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضۡلٍ۬ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ (١٧١  

“Think not of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord; 

They rejoice in the bounty provided by Allah. And with regard to those left behind, who have not yet joined them (in their bliss), the (Martyrs) glory in the fact that on them is no fear, nor have they (cause to) grieve. 

They glory in the Grace and the bounty from Allah, and in the fact that Allah suffereth not the reward of the Faithful to be lost (in the least).” 

(Ali Imran, 3:169-171)

The shaheed mentioned in the above verses is meant for those who are killed in struggling to raise high the kalimah of Allah. Fighting the enemies for the purpose of defending the religion of Allah, just as explained by Rasulullah SAW when he was asked by someone about those who are considered as dying fie sabilillah:

From Abu Musa al-Asy’ari RA, he said; A man came to the Prophet and asked, "A man fights for war booty; another fights for fame and a third fights for showing off; which of them fights in Allah's Cause?' The Prophet said, 'He who fights that Allah's Word, Islam, should be superior, fights in Allah's Cause.” 


Those who die in the struggle to raise high the kalimah (words) of Allah, they are the ones who achieve victory, whether it be they live or are dead in battle, just as Allah SWT says:

قُلۡ هَلۡ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡحُسۡنَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ وَنَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمۡ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦۤ أَوۡ بِأَيۡدِينَا‌ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَڪُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ (٥٢

“Say: ‘Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things- (Martyrdom or victory)? But we can expect for you either that Allah will send his punishment from Himself, or by our hands. So wait (expectant); we too will wait with you.’" 

(at-Taubah, 9:52)

The two goodness meant in the above verse are; achieving victory or dying shaheed. Meanwhile for the kafir Allah guarantees the coming of adzab (chastisement) for them; whether the adzab will come directly from Allah, such as the adzab during the battle of Ahzab, or it is made to come by Allah through the hands of the Mujahideen, in the same manner as the adzab during the battle of Badar.

3- Shaheed in the dunya only; i.e. those who die in the battle arena for defending the religion of Allah, but personally, they advance into the battle field because of worldly goals. Therefore, in this world they are judged as shaheed, to the extent that their janaza are not washed. But in the akhirah they will be thrown into hell….

“The first of people against whom judgment will be pronounced on the Day of Resurrection will be a man who died a martyr, then he will be brought and Allah will make known to him His favours and he will recognize them. [ The Almighty] will say: And what did you do about them? He will say: I fought for you until I died a martyr. He will say: You have lied - you did but fight that it might be said [of you]: He is courageous. And so it was said.” He will be ordered to be dragged along on his face until he is cast into Hell-fire.” 


Shaheed is a very high honor, just below the status of Prophethood and Siddiqeen, and above the degree of Solih. But generally, people only aspire for them or their children to become solih. Whereas, the degree of shaheed, just as we have seen in the Qur’anic verse earlier, is above the degree of solih. Therefore, the hadith could be understood as giving encouragement to the Muslimeen so that they aspire to be able to die shaheed.

In that case and as a proof, we must make do’a with all our hearts so that we would die in the state of shaheed fie sabilillah. Amongst the proofs is by always making the do’a:

اللهم إني أسألك الشهادة في سبيلك

“O Allah, verily I am begging from You to give me shaheed in Your path.”

The death of shaheed could not be achieved without conducting a struggle to raise high the religion of Allah. Whereas, the chance to fight in a battle will not be available all the time. If the person begging for shaheed is really truthful in his supplication to Allah, then Allah will raise him to the degree of shaheed, even he dies in his bed.

One of the proofs that one is truthful in his do’a is by following up the do’a with I’dad (carrying out preparations for jihad) according to his ability:

وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّا ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ۬ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ ٱلۡخَيۡلِ تُرۡهِبُونَ بِهِۦ عَدُوَّ ٱللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّڪُمۡ وَءَاخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُهُمۡ‌ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُواْ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيۡكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تُظۡلَمُونَ (٦٠

“Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly.” 

(al-Anfal, 8:60)

This i’dad could be accomplished by doing training so as to gain the skills in using weapons, learning the techniques of combats or if these could not be achieved, by taking care of the physical strength and sustaining it always by strengthening the spirits with true iman, as well as true ibaadah and other things that could safeguard the ambition for shaheed.

Another thing that could be a proof of his true ambition is the observation of the occurrences by following the news that come out of the jihad lands. Other than that he is also diligent in contributing his wealth in the way of Allah. He likes to care and provide attentiveness to the families who are left behind for the sake of jihad. And when his turn to depart comes, he will go for jihad.

Jihad itself is of two kinds, offensive jihad and defensive jihad. Offensive jihad is conducted together with the Khalifah or Amirul Mu’mineen, and as long as it is not mobilized by the amir, the ruling is fard kifayah (collective obligation). The defensive jihad is the jihad for the sake of defending a country from the attack of the enemies. The ruling for this type of jihad is fard ‘ayn (individual duty) for the able.

In defending the lands of the Muslims, if the intention is purely for defending the religion of Allah, then his jihad is fie sabilillah. Dying in such kind of struggle is shaheed in the dunya and akhirah. However, if his jihad is only for defending or winning independence for the nation, then he will only attain shaheed in the dunya.

For this reason, in i’dad (preparing for jihad), it is necessary to base it on ‘ilm (knowledge) so that rightful practices in accordance with the demand of shari’ah could be undertaken. Without the foundation on ‘ilm it could be that, before the jihad happens, his desire for shaheed is not siddiq (true) anymore, it’s gone and blown away by the satan’s whisper. Or if the jihad has really happened, his ambition to die shaheed will turn into a desire for the liberation of the country from the enemies on the basis of nationalism only.

Every human being’s age in life has definitely been predetermined by Allah. Advancing into the jihad arena doesn’t mean putting our lives at stake. On the other hand, running away from the jihad arena doesn’t mean that we can free ourselves from the destiny of death. There are a lot of instances where a person repeatedly plunged into the midst of the battle but was never killed. Khalid bin Walid, for an instance, was a warrior in every field, remember Rasulullah SAW named him as Saifullah (Allah’s Sword) but his death happened on a bed.

If one’s ambition to die shaheed is indeed true, it will be evidenced in his various actions which keep on burning fervently until the end of his life. Even if he dies in his bed, he will reap the same rewards as those who die in the jihad arena.


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